North & South
This stage of Israels history covers a period of about 325 years, from 930 B.C. To 605 B.C.
The period ends with the capture of these two kingdoms by two enemy Gentile nations (1 Kings 12; 2 Kings 17, 25).
2. The second of 4 great miracle-working periods in the Bible.
a. The first was during the time of Moses and Joshua.
b. The second was during the time of Elijah and Elisha.
c. The third was during the time of Daniel and Ezekiel.
d. The fourth was during the time of Christ and the apostles.
3. All three of the individuals who were raised from the dead in the Old Testament:
a. 1 Kings 17
b. 2 Kings 4
c. 2 Kings 13
4. The only Old Testament man ever to be healed of leprosy (Naaman, 2 Kings 5).
5. The salvation of Samaria (northern capital) by four lepers, and the salvation of Jerusalem (southern capital) by the angel of death (2 Kings 1, 19).
6. The beginning of the Samaritan race (2 Kings 17).
7. The second and third of three occasions when God rolled back the waters of the Jordan river (2 Kings 2).
a. The first was in Joshua 3.
8. The account of a singing choir defeating an enemy on a battlefield (2 Chronicles 20:20-22).
9. The sight of water being burned by fire (1 Kings 18).
10. The sight of an ax head floating on water (2 Kings 6).
11. The only time in the Old Testament where men are allowed to see Gods mounted army of angels (2 Kings 6).
12. Seven prayers on a mountain, seven dips in a river, and seven sneezes on a bed 1 Kings 18; 2 Kings 5; 4).
a. Elijah did the praying on Carmel.
b. Naaman did the dipping in Jordan.
c. A resurrected child did the sneezing in Shunem.
This stage is the most interwoven, fast-paced, and detailed period in all the Bible. We will focus on the rulers of the Chaotic Kingdom Stage.
In order to make our study as brief and as meaningful as possible, we will make use of a twofold method:
Here the reign of every king will be briefly outlined.
Here the reign of the more important kings will be expounded upon.
The Two Kingdoms
A comparison of the two kingdoms
The Northern Kingdom
1. He served as a cabinet member under Solomon, but fled to Egypt to escape the kings wrath.
2. He led the revolt of the ten tribes at Shechem.
3. His false religion caused Israel to sin.
4. His pagan altar was destroyed, his arm paralyzed, and his son struck down by God because of his sin.
6. He was stricken with a plague from God and died.
1. The Son of Jeroboam.
3. First change of dynasty.
1. He killed Nadab and fulfilled the prophecy of Ahijah.
3. His seed was predicted to suffer the same judgment as that of Jeroboam.
2. He was assassinated by a rebel soldier while drunk.
3. Second change of dynasty.
1. Zimri fulfilled prophecy by slaughtering Baashas seed.
2. He was trapped by rebel soldiers in his own palace and killed himself.
3. Third change of dynasty.
1. He made Samaria the northern capital, moving it from Tirzah.
2. He was the most powerful king up to his time.
1. He married Jezebel.
2. His Baal-worshipping practices caused a great famine to fall upon the land.
3. He was allowed to defeat the Syrians on two occasions to prove a point.
4. He was often denounced by Elijah.
a. For encouraging Baal worship
b. For his part in the murder of Naboth
c. For sparing the life of a godless Syrian king
6. The death of his wicked wife (Jezebel) was predicted by Elijah.
7. His own death was predicted by both Elijah and the prophet Micaiah.
8. He was slain in battle with the Syrians.
1. He was the eldest son of Ahab and Jezebel.
2. He persuaded Jehoshaphat to enter into a ship-building enterprise with him at Ezion-Geber.
3. He suffered a severe (and later fatal) fall in his palace in Samaria.
4. He turned to the pagan god Baal-zebub for healing, but received instead the condemnation of Elijah, who he unsuccessfully attempted to arrest.
1. He was the youngest son of Ahab and Jezebel.
2. He persuaded Jehoshaphat to ally with him against Syria.
3. Elisha the prophet performed a miracle (for Jehoshaphats sake) which won the battle.
4. Elisha later helped Jehoram by warning him of several planned Syrian ambushes.
5. Elisha would, however, prevent him from slaughtering some supernaturally blinded Syrian troops.
6. He was on the throne when Naaman came to be healed of leprosy.
7. He was on the throne when God used four lepers to save Samaria from starvation.
9. Fourth change of dynasty.
1. He was anointed by a messenger from Elisha, not by Elisha himself as many people believe.
2. He was known for his bloodletting. Among his other exploits we find these acts in his portfolio:
c. He made his way to the city of Jezreel and killed Jezebel.
d. He then demanded and received the heads of the 70 sons of Ahab who were living in the city of Samaria.
e. He executed 42 royal princes of Judah.
f. Finally, by trickery, he assembled all the priests of Baal in a large convention hall in Jezreel, where he ordered the slaughter of each priest.
1. He was the son of Jehu.
2. He saw his army almost wiped out by the Syrians.
3. He experienced a brief period of remorse over his sins, but apparently not genuine repentance.
a. He was the closest thing to a righteous king the northern kingdom ever saw.
1. He visited Elisha on his deathbed.
3. He related one of the two Old Testament fables to ridicule the arrogant claims of Amaziah.
4. He plundered Jerusalem, taking many hostages and much wealth.
1. He ruled longer than any other northern king.
2. He was one of the most powerful kings of the north.
3. He recovered much of Israels lost territory.
4. He had a 12-year co-regency with Jehoash.
3. Fifth change of dynasty.
1. He was murdered by an incredibly cruel soldier named .
2. Sixth change of dynasty.
1. He was one of Israels most brutal dictators.
2. He bought off Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser with a two-million dollar bribe.
1. He was the son of Menahem.
2. He was killed by his own army commander, Pekah.
3. Seventh change of dynasty.
1. Only 8 years are in view here. It is thought that the first twelve years were shared by a co-regency arrangement with both Menahem and Pekahiah.
2. He joined Syria in an unsuccessful attempt to punish Judah for their refusal to ally against Assyria.
3. He saw Assyria capture some of Israels northern and eastern cities.
5. Eighth change of dynasty.
1. He was Israels final king.
2. He joined with Egypt in rebelling against Assyria.
3. He was imprisoned in Assyria for this.
The Southern Kingdom
1. He was the son of Solomon.
2. His stupidity and tactlessness started the civil war.
3. He had 18 wives and 60 concubines.
4. His favorite wife was Maachah, the evil daughter of Absalom.
5. He sees his capital, Jerusalem, invaded by Shishak, Pharaoh of Egypt.
1. He was the son of Rehoboam.
3. Even with Gods help, he degenerated into a wicked king.
1. He was the son of Abijam.
2. He was Judahs first righteous king.
3. He led Judah in a revival.
4. He was a great builder.
5. He saw God answer his prayer by delivering Jerusalem from a massive Ethiopian attack (2 Chronicles 14:11).
6. He deposed Maachah (his grandmother) because of her idolatry.
7. He later backslid and threw into prison a prophet who had rebuked his sin.
8. He died of a foot disease, which problem he refused to take to God.
2. He was Judahs second righteous king.
3. He instituted a national religious education program by sending out teachers of the word of God.
4. He later marred his testimony by compromising with three ungodly northern kings.
5. He appointed a religious director and a civil director, thus recognizing the separation of church and state.
6. When Jerusalem was threatened by a massive Moabite invasion, God heard his prayer and supernaturally intervened.
1. He was the son of Jehoshaphat.
3. He began his reign by murdering his six brothers.
4. He received a posthumous message from Elijah predicting judgment upon him because of his wicked and murderous reign.
5. He was attacked and defeated by the Philistines and Arabians.
6. He died of a horrible disease and was unmourned at the funeral.
1. He was the son of Joram and Athaliah.
3. After a rule of 6 years, she was executed.
1. He was the son of Ahaziah.
2. He was the only one to survive the bloody purge of Athaliah.
3. He was Judahs 3rd righteous king, but only for awhile, later becoming a cruel tyrant.
a. This is not the prophet Zechariah.
5. He was executed by his own palace guard.
1. He was the son of Joash.
2. He was the 4th righteous king of Judah, but only for awhile.
3. He executed the killers of his father.
4. He was rebuked by a prophet for hiring some mercenary Israeli soldiers to help him fight against Edom.
5. He reluctantly dismissed those paid soldiers and, with Gods help, defeated Edom with his own soldiers.
6. He stupidly brought back some of the Edomite gods for worshiping purposes.
7. He then foolishly waged war on the northern kingdom and was decisively defeated.
2. He is also known as Azariah.
3. He was a mighty warrior and builder.
4. He attempted to intrude into the office of the priesthood and was punished for this by leprosy.
1. He was the son of Uzziah.
2. He was Judahs 5th righteous king.
3. He built the upper gate of the Temple and erected fortresses and towers.
4. He defeated his enemies and receive huge annual tribute from them.
1. He was the son of Jotham.
2. He was the second worst king of Judah.
3. He sacrificed his own children to demons.
4. He was the first person to hear about the virgin birth.
a. See Isaiah 7:1-25
5. He ordered the construction of pagan Assyrian altar and placed it in the Temple to appease Tiglath-Pileser.
2. He was Judahs 6th righteous king.
3. He was the second best king of Judah.
4. He was the richest of all.
5. He repaired the Temple, organized an orchestral group, and appointed a Levitical singing choir.
6. He carried out the greatest Passover celebration since Solomon.
7. He saw the death angel defeat the Assyrian enemies which had surrounded Jerusalem.
8. He was supernaturally healed of a terminal disease and given and additional 15 years to live.
9. He added 15 Psalms to the Old Testament Canon.
10. He foolishly showed the wealth of Judah to some nosy Babylonian ambassadors.
2. He ruled longer than any other king of the north or south.
3. He was the most wicked king of all.
4. Although his faith in God did not come until later in life, while in an enemy prison, he was the 7th righteous king of Judah.
2. He was wicked like his father, but did not repent as his father had done.
3. He was executed by his own household servant.
1. He was the son of Amon.
2. He was the last godly of Judah.
3. At the beginning of his reign, the book of Moses was discovered among the debris in the Temple.
a. He used this to lead Judah in a great revival.
5. He fulfilled a three-hundred-year-old prophecy.
a. See 1 Kings 13:1,2 & 2 Kings 23:15.
6. He was killed in a battle with the Egyptians.
2. He was deposed after only 90 days by the same Pharaoh who had killed his father.
3. He was taken captive into Egypt where he eventually died.
1. He was the eldest son of Josiah.
2. He was Judahs 2nd worst king.
3. He was placed on the throne by the Egyptian Pharaoh.
4. He was later made a vassal by Nebuchadnezzar after Egypt was defeated by the Babylonians.
5. He was self-centered and materialistic.
6. He murdered innocent people and often persecuted the prophet Jeremiah.
7. He burned a copy of a part of Gods word.
a. Jeremiah 36:22-32
8. He experienced the first of three visits Nebuchadnezzar made to the city of Jerusalem.
9. During this visit in 606 B.C., Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were taken into captivity.
10. At his death, he received the burial of an ass, as Jeremiah had predicted.
2. He is the last of the line of David to sit on the throne.
3. He is also known as Jeconiah and Coniah.
4. He received a curse from God, stating that none of his seed would sit upon the throne of Judah.
5. Both Ezekiel (19:5-9) and Jeremiah (22:24-26) predicted he would be carried off into Babylonian captivity.
6. He died in Babylon.
2. He persecuted Jeremiah during his reign.
3. He rebelled against Babylon along with Egypt.
4. He was captured, blinded, and carried off into Babylonian captivity by Nebuchadnezzar.
5. Jerusalem was burned to the ground and the Temple burned at this time.
As the new leader of the ten-tribe confederation, Jeroboam is faced with a serious dilemma.
Three times each year, per Gods command (Leviticus 23; Exodus 23:17), the entire nation is supposed to go to Jerusalem to worship God.
Change of Symbols
Jeroboam changed the symbols of Israel from two cherubim to two golden calves.
He even stole Aarons text to introduce the calves to Israel (cf. Exodus 32:4 with 1 Kings 12:28).
Change of Worship Center
Jeroboam moved the religious worship center from Jerusalem to Bethel and Daniel.
This was done in direct defiance to Gods clear command to him (1 Kings 11:36).
Change of Priesthood
Jeroboam degrades the Levitical priesthood by making priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi (1 Kings 12:31).
Because of this, the vast majority of the priests and Levites flee to Judah, leaving behind a situation of nearly total apostasy (2 Chronicles 11:13-17).
Change of Calendar
Jeroboam changed the religious calendar from October to November.
According to Leviticus 23, Israel was to observe six (6) main yearly feasts, beginning in April and ending in October. These 6 feasts, 3 of which would fall in October, were typical of:
Jeroboam visits the altar in Bethel to burn incense.
He now becomes the second of 3 Israelite kings who dared take upon themselves the office of a priest. All three were severely punished. The other two were:
For his idolatry, Jeroboam was prophesied against by a man of God.
That years later a king of Judah named Josiah would totally destroy Jeroboams false religion, even burning the bones of his dead priests upon the very altar where Jeroboam stood sacrificing (cf. 1 Kings 13:2; 2 Kings 23;15, 16).
Jeroboams altar was destroyed and his arm paralyzed, both supernaturally from God.
God strikes Jeroboam with a plague and he dies, after an evil reign of 22 years.
It is recorded not less than 21 times that he, made Israel to sin.
Perhaps the best known of all the kings of the northern kingdom.
Ahabs wife was Jezebel. She is the only person in the Old Testament with this name (where is the prince?). She is the epitome of:
Elijah warns Ahab that, because of his sin and Israels wickedness, a three-and-a-half-year famine will occur (1 Kings 17:1).
Elijah then defeats the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel (1 Kings 18:40).
Ben-hadad then declares war on Ahab, but God allows Ahab to defeat the Syrians on two occasions to prove a point;
The Syrians fought Israel in the hills.
Ben-hadad decides the defeat was owing to geographical factors. This meant that Israels God was a hill God. Plans were made to fight again.
The Syrians fought Israel on the plain believing that the God of Israel was the God of the hills he is, but he is also:
The Syrians lost 127,000 infantrymen.
Ahab disobeyed Gods command and spared Ben-hadads life (as Saul had once done with Agag).
The prophet of God then announced that God would require Ahabs life for that of Ben-hadad (1 Kings 20:32-43).
Even though Samuel, some years earlier, had warned against land grabbing by kings, Ahab tries to buy a vineyard from Naboth.
He was not selling, and even had he wanted to, the Levitical law would have forbidden him (Leviticus 25:23; Numbers 36:7; Ezekiel 46:18).
The Helpful Wife
When Jezebel learns of Naboths refusal to sell the vineyard, she contrives a plan to get it anyway.
She pays two lying witnesses to state that Naboth had cursed both God and the king. Naboth is then taken out and murdered, and his sons are all stoned.
God ordered Elijah to confront Ahab and pronounce heavens curse upon him and his household.
When he heard all of this he humbled himself and God spared him from seeing his sons killed.
At this time Ahab enlists the aid of Jehoshaphat to fight against the Syrian king, Ben-hadad (who was supposed to be dead already).
To a man they predict victory.
Ahabs response: 1 Kings 22:8
He grabs some horns and prances around in an attempt to demonstrate Ahabs victory.
He is then slapped in the face by Zedekiah and re-imprisoned by Ahab and placed on a diet of bread and water until his safe return.
On the eve of the battle, Ahab comes up with a plan. He has Jehoshaphat wear his royal robes into battle and he (Ahab) will put on the garb of an infantry soldier. Jehoshaphat agrees. K
Jehoshaphat is immediately spotted in the battle and the Syrians believe he is Ahab.
Jehoshaphat then cries out to God for deliverance and is unharmed by the Syrians who now realize it is not Ahab.
Ahabs blood-soaked chariot is taken down to a nearby pool to be cleaned where it is licked by dogs, just as Elijah had predicted.
Jehu was notorious for his bloodletting (see page16-164).
God ordered Jehu to execute the dynasty of Ahab, including Jezebel, whom the dogs would later eat (2 Kings 9:1-10), but did not sanction the other assassinations.
Jehu executes them both.
She is immediately thrown to her death and soon eaten by wild dogs who left only her skull, feet, and hands.
These were removed from their rightful owners, packed in baskets, and sent to Jehu in Jezreel.
It is Rehoboam who is singlehandedly responsible for the Israeli civil war.
During the first 10 years of his reign, the land was at peace; Asa used the time wisely.
Peace ended suddenly when Judah was threatened with an invasion by a million Ethiopian troops (14:9).
Asa cries out to God for deliverance (14:11).
Asa is severely rebuked for this by the prophet Hanani.
This is a favored response of sinful monarchs toward uncooperative preachers.
He began his reign by continuing the moral reforms and building projects started by his father, Asa.
In the 3rd year of his reign, he instituted a nationwide religious education program, sending out Bible teachers to all important Judean cities (2 Chronicles 17:7-9).
The Heartbreak of Compromise
At this time the Moabites and their allies declare war upon Judah, and word reaches Jerusalem that a vast army is marching toward the Holy City.
Early the next morning Judahs army marches out to engage the enemy. God causes fear among the apposing troops and they begin fighting among themselves.
cooperates with Jehoiada the high priest in ushering in a time of revival, including the
destruction of the temples of Baal
This was the first free-will offering taken since the construction of the tabernacle under Moses.
After the death of Jehoiada Joash became like Lot without Abraham.
Judahs leaders (who are corrupt) persuaded Joash to abandon God and worship idols.
king, Hazael, began a move to enlarge his kingdom by capturing the Philistine city of
Gath. He then started toward Jerusalem, but was bribed off by Joash, who sent all the gold
and treasuries of the Temple
Finally, at Joashs order, Zechariah is stoned to death.
Jesus referred to this about 850 years later (Matthew 23:35).
The Lord look upon it, and require it. 2 Chronicles 24:22
Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. Acts 7:60
A few months after the murder of Zechariah, God sent the Syrian army all the way into Judah. Jerusalem was captured and looted. Joash was seriously wounded and finally murdered by his own palace officials.
Uzziah had the second longest reign of all Judahs kings, 52 years.
In the midst of his strength he was cut down by pride, burning incense upon the golden altar.
He was immediately stricken with leprosy and later died, still a leper.
Hezekiahs vast wealth was exceeded only by Solomons.
In the first month of his reign, Hezekiah re-instituted the animal sacrifice.
He was the finest king since Solomon:
And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him. 2 Kings 23:25
The achievements of Josiah are phenomenal. They include:
1. He began seeking after God when he was just 16 (2 Chronicles 34:3).
2. At the age of 20, he began his massive reform work (34:3).
3. He destroyed the altars of Baal (34:4).
4. He then ground them into dust and scattered it over the graves of those who had sacrificed to them (34:4).
5. He burned the bones of heathen priests upon their own altars (34:5).
6. He carried out these action in distant Israelite cities as well as in his own kingdom (34:6).
7. At the age of 26, he began to repair the Temple (34:8).
8. He led his people in a massive repentance service upon the discovery of the law of Moses (2 Kings 23:1-3, 18-21, 29-32). He then had this book read to all the people.
9. He planned for and presided over one of the greatest Passover services of all time (2 Chronicles 35:1, 18).
10. He killed heathen priests whom previous kings of Judah had appointed (2 Kings 23:5).
11. He removed the shameful idol of Asherah from the Temple (23:6).
12. He tore down the houses of male prostitutes (23:7).
13. He brought the priests of God, who were living in other cities of Judah, back to Jerusalem (23:8)
14. He destroyed the altar of Topheth in the Hinnom Valley so no one could offer human sacrifices upon it (23:10).
15. He tore down the statue of horses and chariots (which were dedicated to the use of the sun god) located near the entrance of the Temple (23:11).
16. He tore down Ahazs pagan altars on the palace roof (23:12).
17. He remove the shrines of Ashtoreth (god of Sidon), Chemosh (god of Moab), and Milcom (god of Ammon), which Solomon had built for his many wives (23:13).
19. He demolished the shrines on the hills of Samaria (23:19).
20. He exterminated mediums, wizards, and soothsayers (23:24).
In cleansing the Temple, Hilkiah, the high priest, discovered an old scroll which turned out to be a copy of the Law of Moses (2 Kings 22:8).
Josiah was informed of this and tore his clothes out of terror.
Josiah then ordered Hilkiah to seek out the counsel of a godly prophetess concerning all this.
Huldahs message was a twofold prophecy. It stated that:
1. Because of Judahs tragic and shameful spiritual failure, God had already determined to judge his people. She pronounced upon the Holy City the fearful words of the Lord (22:17).
2.. Because of Josiahs love of God, he would be spared all this, as judgment would not fall until after his death. He, himself, would be gathered unto thy grave in peace (2 Kings 2:20).
The Greatest Passover Celebration
The number os animals sacrificed is amazing:
3,000 young bulls
The Ark of the Covenant
According to 2 Ch. 35:18, this was the greatest Passover of all time. During the celebration, Josiah elevated the Ark of the Covenant to its proper place in the Temple (2 Chronicles 35:3).
This is the final Old Testament mention of the Ark of the Covenant. Here is a synopsis of its history:
1. It is first mentioned in Exodus 25:10.
2. It was placed in the Tabernacle by Moses (Exodus 40:21).
3. It was carried throughout Israels 40-year wilderness journey (Numbers 10:35; 14:44).
4. It followed the people of Israel across the Jordan River (Joshua 4:5).
5. It was carried around Jericho (Joshua 6:13).
6. It was placed beside Joshua on Mt. Ebal as he read the law to all Israel (Joshua 8:33).
7. It was formally placed in the new tabernacle, set up at Shiloh (Joshua 18:1).
8. It was carried into battle with the Philistines by Hophni and Phinehas (1 Samuel 4:4).
10. It was carried by two milk cows (milch kine) into Bethshemesh where God smote a number of citizens for looking inside (1 Samuel 6:12).
11. It was carried to Kirjath-jearim where it remained for 20 years (1 Samuel 7:1).
12. It was brought to Gibeah by Saul where it saved Israel from the Philistines (1 Samuel 14:18).
13. It was carried from Gibeah toward Jerusalem by David on a new cart. En route, Uzzah was slain for touching it (2 Samuel 6:3).
14. It ressted at the house of Obed-edom for 3 months (2 Samuel 6:11).
15. It was brought into Jerusalem by David (2 Samuel 6:16).
16. It was carried by Zadok, the high priest, over the brook Kidron to David during his escape from Absaloms rebellion (2 Samuel 15:24).
17. It was carried back to Jerusalem by Davids order (2 Samuel 15:25, 29).
18. It was placed in Solomons Temple (1 Kings 8:1).
19. None of the Canonized books of the Bible says what eventually became of it, but in the book of 2 Maccabees 2:1-12 we are told that the prophet Jeremiah hid the Ark, the tabernacle, and the altar of incense in a cave-dwelling in Mt. Nebo.
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